During the Persian Expedition of 1796, Derbent was stormed by Russian forces under General Valerian Zubov, but the Russians were forced to retreat due to internal political issues, making it fall under Persian rule again. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». The walls of that settlement were some 2 metres (6.6 ft) high and maximally 7 metres (23 ft) thick, with evidence of repeated destruction and rebuilding throughout the period.  The chronicler Movses Kaghankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea." Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. 05/05/2018 year.Tourists are photographed against the background of the city from the Naryn-Kala Wall of Naryn-Kala fortress and view of Derbent city. Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. It is clear that the most important thing in Derbent is the fortress, well preserved, although rebuilt many times. In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List, highlighting the following sites: Derbent Wall- a double wall built in t… Until the Russians conquered Derbent in the 1800s, the wall remained a crucial point in the city's military security. ), In the 1886 population counting of the Dagestan Oblast of Russia's Caucasus Viceroyalty, of the 15,265 inhabitants Derbent had, 8,994 (58,9%) were of Iranian descent (Russian: персы) thus comprising an absolute majority in the town.. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid Empire. Закон №16 от 10 апреля 2002 г. Derbent is located in Russia’s Dagestan region, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs, who called it the Gate of Gates (Bab al-Abwab), following their invasion of Persia. The city is home to machine building, food, textile, fishing and fishery supplies, construction materials and wood industries. Think Again, Moscow Says", "Bitter Choices: Loyalty and Betrayal in the Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus", "Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent", Правительство РД — Дербент — Муниципальные районы и городские округа, "Saving Another Dying Jewish Language Before It's Too Late", "После покушения на раввина евреи Дагестана живут в страхе", Derbent as Russia's Oldest City?  In fact, a deliberate policy of “Persianizing” Derbent and the eastern Caucasus in general can be traced over many centuries, from Khosrow I to the Safavid shahs Ismail I, and ʿAbbās the Great.  As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Derbent—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. Том 1", http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, https://web.archive.org/web/20180726010024/http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек", "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров", Derbent - Russia’s oldest city: 5,000 and counting, "Derbent as Russia's Oldest City?  Archaeological evidence points to the establishment of a fortified settlement on the Derbent hill as early as the late 8th century BCE, probably under the impact of Scythian raids. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East.  of the U.S.S.R.) I, Moscow, 1977. The Shirvanshahs integrated the city so closely with their political structure that a new branch of the Shirvan dynasty emerged from Derbend, the Derbenid dynasty. The educational infrastructure includes a university as well as several technical schools. The length … Dagestan. However, the city was lost once again to the northern Kipchaks. The region is named after the ancient Iranian-speaking tribes of the Massagetae people, who inhabited this region from around the 1st century AD to the 7th century AD. Hardliner Islamic groups shot tourists in 2015. People began to settle in the territory of Dagestan more than a million years ago (the sites of ancient people Aynikab 1-2, Muhkay 1-2, Gegalashur 1-3, Rugudzha). Ibrahim I revived Shirvan's fortunes, and through his cunning politics managed to continue without paying tribute.  Some say that the level of the Caspian was formerly higher and that the lowering of the water level opened an invasion route that had to be fortified. Historical attractions include the baths, the cisterns, the old cemeteries, the caravanserai, the 18th-century Khan's mausoleum, as well as several mosques. , "-Wėrōy-pahr: "The Gruzinian Guard" The old name of the fortress at Darband;...", In Arabic texts the city was known as "Bāb al-Abwāb" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْأَبْوَاب, lit. The walls, reaching to the sea, date from the 6th century, Sassanid dynasty period. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description of the sack of Derbent by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate in 627. On the history of research),” in Vostochnye istochniki po istorii Dagestana (Eastern sources on the history of Dāḡestān), Makhachkala, 1980, pp. Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Persian: دربند; Lezgian: Кьвевар, Цал; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Avar: Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea. He conquered the city of Derbend in 1437. His successor, Böri Shad, proved unable to consolidate Tong Yabghu's conquests, and the city was retaken by the Persians, who held it as an integral domain until the Muslim Arab conquest. The Persian name for the city came into use at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, but Derbent was probably already in the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. This is a must-visit for understanding the The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. I stayed at the Hotel Elit for one night in July 2015. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Derbent serves as the administrative center of Derbentsky District, even though it is not a part of it. There are also various Middle Persian (Pahlavi) inscriptions on the walls of the fortress and Northern/Southern walls inside the city. Today, Derbent is an outstanding monument of defense architecture. Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings, Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Surroundings, Traditional Persian residential architecture, Traditional water sources of Persian antiquity, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Derbent&oldid=989635831, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from EB9, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles with Armenian-language sources (hy), Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with image map1 but not image map, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Lezgian-language text, Articles containing Azerbaijani-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Naryn-Kala fortress in Derbent Idem and A. R. Shikhsaidov, “Derbend-name (k istorii izucheniya)” (Darband-nāma. 564. This settlement initially covered only the more protected northeastern side of the hill (some 4–5 hectares), but over the 6th–4th centuries BCE expanded to cover its entire surface (c. 15 hectares). Derbent resembles a huge museum and has magnificent mountains and shore nearby, and therefore possesses much touristic potential, further increased by UNESCO's classification of the citadel, ancient city and fortress as a World Heritage Site in 2003; however, instability in the region has halted development. Indeed, here the Caucasus Mountains most closely approach the Caspian Sea, forming a narrow “neck”, the movement through which is easy to control.  According to the account in the later "Darband-nāma", after construction of the fortifications Khosrow I “moved much folk here from Persia”, relocating about 3,000 families from the interior of Persia in the city of Derbent and neighboring villages. Derbent - the oldest Djuma-mosque in North Caucasus. It is the center of Russian brandy production. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. The first mention of Jews in Derbent in modern times is by a German traveler, Adam Olearius, in the 17th century. In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Arab Caliphate, Derbent became the capital of an emirate. Derbent is the southern-most city in Russia, and over 1,500km south of Moscow. The city has a well-preserved citadel (Narin-kala), enclosing an area of 4.5 hectares (11 acres), enclosed by strong walls. In the reign of Yazdgird, the son of Šabuhr made it during the invasion of the Čōl, at the boundary of the Gruzinian Guard.)". Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. 'Gate of Gates') simply as "al-Bāb" (Arabic: ٱلْبَاب, lit. The old Armenian Church, now used as a venue and Museum, Russian Orthodox Church of the Intercession, Putin visiting an exhibition dedicated to the 2000th anniversary of Derbent in the State Historical Museum, Почта России. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: 5000 years of history - See 108 traveler reviews, 455 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor.  The geographical treatise Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr written in Middle Persian mentions the old name of the fortress – Wērōy-pahr (The Gruzinian Guard): "šahrestan [ī] kūmīs [ī] panj-burg až-i dahāg pad šabestān kard. This emirate often fought losing wars with the neighboring Christian state of Sarir, allowing Sarir to manipulate Derbent's politics on occasion. In the 19th century, the city passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813..  In the 5th century Derbent also functioned as a border fortress and the seat of a Sassanid marzban. Built in the 6th century during the reign of Persian emperor Khosrow I and maintained by various later Arab, Turkish and Persian regimes, the fortifications comprise three distinct elements: the citadel of Naryn-Kala at Derbent, the twi… Россия - panoramio (2).jpg 3,888 × 2,592; 3.45 MB. After the Arab conquest of Persia various Arabic inscriptions were also made on the walls. The rulers of Shirvan, called the Shirvanshahs, had attempted, and on numerous times, succeeded, to conquer Derbend since the 18th Shirvanshah king, Afridun I, was appointed as the governor of the city. The name of the defensive complex Naryn-Kala (the citadel and the Derbent wall) means “narrow gate”. The bed was comfy. When intact, the wall had a height of 9 m (29 ft) and a thickness of about 3 m (10 ft) and, with its iron gates and numerous watch-towers, defended Persia's frontier..  For background see Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast. Being briefly taken by the Russians as a result of the Persian expedition of 1722–23 by Peter the Great, the 1735 Treaty of Ganja, formed by Imperial Russia and Safavid Iran (de facto ruled by Nader Shah), forced Russia to return Derbent and its bastion to Iran. It owes its rich history to its strategic position, along the travel route between Europe and the Middle East, on the border of Europe and Asia, where the mountains of the Caucasus almost arrive at the coast leaving a narrow 3-km strip of plain. View of Derbent city from the fortress wall (Dagestan, Russia They were renowned for their cultural achievements and geopolitical pursuits. The fortress in Derbent guarded the Caspian Gates -- the only way through the wall. The view of Derbent is great and the actual fortress itself is very well taken care of. Furthermore, Ibrahim also greatly increased the limits of his state.  The Darband fortress was certainly the most prominent Sasanian defensive construction in the Caucasus and could have been erected only by an extremely powerful central government. , The 20-meter-high (66 ft) walls with thirty north-looking towers are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, Khosrau I, who also directed the construction of Derbent's fortress.. Закон №6 от 13 января 2005 г. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. , From the 4th century BCE, the settlement began to expand beyond the hill fortress, which became a citadel to an expanding city.  In the late 4th century CE, Albania passed under Sasanian influence and control; in the 5th century, it was a Sasanian border fortress and the seat of a march-warden (marzban).. Derbent Hostels; Derbent Beach Hotels; Derbent Family Hotels; Near Landmarks. History of Derbent and the millennia old historical and cultural relations it has with Iran. AC worked well. That's according to the city's acting mayor Rustambek Pirmagomedov, who has pointed the finger at the federal government for neglecting Derbent's fortifications, in what he called a "big emergency for the city.". The wall in Dagistan Russia also known as Derbent on the coast of the Caspian sea, it is a border fortress between two walls stretching from the mountains to the sea. Derbent played an important role in the development of the Silk Roads; it was located on the Caspian trail, which was of strategic importance, connecting the Europe and Western Asia.  Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. From a small early Bronze-age settlement to one of the biggest medieval cities of the Eastern Europe, the city of Derbent has a unique urban structure. 'Barred gate', from dar “gate” + band “bar,” lit., “barred gate”), referring to the adjacent pass. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. A UNESCO World Heritage site in Dagestan partially collapsed after heavy rain. The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. During periods when the Sasanians were distracted by war with the Byzantines or protracted battles with the Hephthalites in the eastern provinces, the northern tribes succeeded in advancing into the Caucasus. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). Derbent wall (10 F) Media in category "Derbent Fortress" The following 164 files are in this category, out of 164 total. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, and is traditionally identified with Albana, the capital. Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and it is the southernmost Russian city, lying only 50 km (31 miles) from the border with Azerbaijan. After the Russian conquest, many Jews of rural Dagestan fled to Derbent, which became the spiritual center of the Mountain Jews. The Sassanids had also brought Armenians from Syunik to help protect the pass from invaders; as Arab rule weakened in the region at the end of the ninth century, the Armenians living there were able to establish a kingdom, which lasted until the early years of the thirteenth century.
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