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It proved to be a devastating and expensive blow to Ford and its prestige—particularly when, in 1980, the State of Indiana charged Ford Motor Company with reckless homicide in a rear-ended Pinto fire. The Ford V-8 did have problems, like cooling issues that were never adequately solved. Engineers remember the 1930s mainly for tremendous improvements in the ride quality It was developed and designed by Chaparral Cars, an innovative team that put a heavy emphasis on utilizing new techniques to redefine the look, shape, and feel of the traditional racer. But by 1931 the Model A, too, had been surpassed by a horde of voracious competitors. gives maximum passenger and trunk space with minimum external size and weight. These changes also brought a revolution in body styling. Developed under the supervision of Chevrolet chief engineer Ed Cole, the ’55 Chevy would ultimately help propel him to the chairmanship of GM. Made for Movie Hydra Schmidt Coupe. Instantly recognizable on the street, it commanded respect at every stoplight, yet its cost meant that in pretty much every case a suit-and-tie-wearing swell was at the wheel. The first "car" built in America was a horse buggy with a 4-hp, single-cylinder engine, assembled by Charles and Frank Duryea in 1892-93. Despite these early advances, there were some tough unsolved problems that made out millions of the things over a 20-year period, with only minor changes in design. Promotional portrait of the Chrysler Airflow, 1934. The first pneumatic car tyre Michelin introduces the first pneumatic car tyre Jan 17, 1899. Five years later, … Call it a testosterone killer. regulations came almost faster than the engineers could keep track of them. While the invention of the first, practical, gasoline-powered automobile is attributed to Karl Benz of Germany in 1885, it is widely accepted that automobiles did not become affordable and more widely available until the Ford Motor Company produced and sold the Model T, beginning in 1908. The \"horseless carriage\" was something to turn heads and impress neighbors, but few people expected it to replace the horse and wagon as a means of everyday transport. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. Ford introduces model A Jan 1, 1903. Sneer if you like. Valves needed grinding and rings 1 mile a … Ever practical, with an eye on production efficiency, he realized that the pigmented paints used in the T’s early years (red, green, gray and blue) required multiple coats with time between coats to dry and sand. An ingenious concept felled by one fault: swing-axle rear suspensionHow many built: 1,695,765 between 1960 and 1969Starting price: $1,984 for Club CoupesNickname: ‘Vair’. They didn’t sell nearly that many, but GM management, particularly the corporation’s legendary chairman Alfred P. Sloan, felt it had a place in the corporation’s stable and added welcome sizzle to the brand—particularly when crosstown rival Ford announced the two-seat Thunderbird for 1955. They seized upon the transverse-engined, front-wheel-drive K-car platform to resuscitate Chrysler Corporation, with the help of a federal government guaranteed loan. Accord was the first model from a Japanese automaker to be made in America, beginning in November 1982 in Marysville, Ohio, with cumulative U.S. production of Accord exceeding 11 million … As with the Chrysler C-300 two years before, the real excitement growled under the Adventurer’s hood, in the form of a 345-cubic-inch Hemi V-8 with dual four-barrel carburetors that twisted out 345 horsepower. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Unfortunately for Chevrolet, it also rusted quickly and the engine had vibration and cooling issues. Worker turnover killed productivity; sometimes workers just walked away from their stations, bringing the entire line to a halt. But it was also the decade when family automobiles The Accord gets props for being a safe and reliable family car. As sales soared, Ford at times produced more Model Ts than the next 10 automakers’ output combined. Economic Boom. Shortening the hood and The first practical, reliable, mass-produced American automobileHow many built: 12,000+ between 1901 and 1904Starting price: $650Nickname: ‘The Curved Dash’. 1960s magazine advertisement for the Ford Shelby Cobra. 1920s. Chevrolet Corvette C5-R. by Martin V. Melosi. The cars operated more smoothly than did early electric cars, but they could run only at a constant speed; breaking or jamming of the cable tied up all the cars on the line. On February 4, 1929, Ford built its one millionth Model A; the two millionth followed on July 29th, barely six months later. It was DeLorean who ignited the Muscle Car years with the LeMans GTO while he was Pontiac’s chief engineer. Tires wore out fast and blew out at every Individual bucket seats and a floor-shift 3-speed manual transmission came standard, giving Vega a sports car flair. Vast storage areas were filled with bodies being painted, costing the company both time and money. Suddenly, it was the federal government One look at the body design revealed the differences: Fenders integrated with the body. But Corvair had one fatal flaw: a swing-axle independent rear suspension. Walter Chrysler was hired by the Maxwell-Chalmers company to overhaul their failing operations. The first modern short-stroke V-8, the Chevy smallblock V-8 would firmly cement Chevrolet’s place at the head of the pack in the horsepower race that was to come. the Ford Model T literally put America on wheels. It is called Motor Wagons. Ken Fermoyle/The Enthusiast Network/Getty Images, A dramatic new middle-market entry marked by utter failure in the marketplaceHow many built: 110,847 between 1958 and 1960Starting price: $3,500 for top-of-the-line Citation hardtop coupe. The Ulstermen weren’t familiar with assembly-line production. Its new engine, with a groundbreaking die-cast cylinder block, contributed to the Vega’s light weight. Jan 1, 1903. Read More: 12 of the Most Iconic Cars in TV History. chokes, easy-shifting synchromesh transmissions, automatic chassis lubrication, Family cars And with the Great Depression raging, few wanted to splurge $1,345, 60% more than a conventional Chrysler CA six sedan, to take a chance on advanced technology. Instead it was a series of breakthroughs -- from the battery to the electric motor -- in the 1800s that led to the first electric vehicle on the road.In the early part of the century, innovators in Hungary, the Netherlands and the United States -- including a blacksmith from Vermont -- began toying with the concept of a battery-powered vehicle and created some of the first small-scale electric cars. By 1914 the Model T’s success had made Henry Ford rich, but he had a problem. 24 Cars That Made America OLDSMOBILE MODEL R. Starting price: $650 Ransom Eli Olds, who had started experimenting with self-propelled vehicles in... BUICK MODEL 10. We think not.” Ford thought differently. But its light weight, reliability and substantial power laid the base for American automobile engine development for years to come. The first entirely Japanese made-car was manufactured by Komanosuke Uchiyama in 1907.In 1904, Torao Yamaha built the first Japanese-made bus, with the seating capacity of 10 people.After the end of World War I, large numbers of companies with the support of the government and the Imperial Army started manufacturing military trucks.That eventually results in the starting of automobile companies … Taillights were housed in the trailing edges of the fins. were upgraded with such luxuries as air conditioning, power seats, power windows, 24 Cars That Made America. and fabric cord tires. Car and Driver chided Motor Trend by including the Vega on its list of “The 10 Most Embarrassing Award Winners in Automotive History.” The editors commented: “It was so unreliable that it seemed the only time anyone saw a Vega on the road not puking out oil smoke was when it was being towed.”, Economical, hugely successful in the marketplace—but with a fatal flawHow many built: 3,150,943 between 1971 AND 1980Starting price: $1,919 to $2,062. federal emission standards often required engine modifications that hurt fuel Three-row seating accommodated up to five rear passengers. Barrow and his girlfriend Bonnie Parker met their end in a bullet-riddled 1934 “Fordor” (the company’s pun) sedan. The first motor vehicles were heavy, solid, and difficult to control, making crashes commonplace. Shelby approached Chevy for engines. were considered social prestige symbols in those days, so you needed a muscular Ford Motor Company, American automotive corporation cofounded in 1903 by Henry Ford. With Richard Bak, Michael Balzano III, H.W. The Mustang’s significance in American automobile history can’t be understated. Its history begins with the American-European rivalry that characterized early auto racing and progresses to uniquely American forms of racing. When General Motors incorporated in the fall of 1908, its CEO, William “Billy” Durant, went on a buying spree, building his empire by gobbling up the lion’s share of the competition within the first year. Starting in 1949, General Motors presented its annual Motorama, parading the company’s products and new-vehicle concepts. In 1886, Carl Benz began the first commercial production of motor vehicles with internal combustion engines. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Just over 3,800 were built in calendar year 1927. But after the success of the Chrysler Corporation K-cars, it was no stretch for the now respected Sperlich to renew his envisioned project with a K-car base. were iffy, even when new. Actually, automobiles were rich men's playthings in those early years. One of those avid spectators around the new Corvette at the New York Motorama in 1953 was a Belgian-born Russian engineer with extensive racing experience in Europe, Zora Arkus-Duntov. Buick weighed in with the Wildcat I, conceived by car-design guru Harley Earl, complete with a foot-controlled radio and “Robo-static” hubs. With Ford wholly owned by its founding family, Edsel’s death in 1943 and Henry’s in 1947 forced the next generation to take the reins and usher the company into the postwar era. American cars have had a long and rich tradition both in the United States and throughout the world. Simon Clay/National Motor Museum/Heritage Images/Getty Images, The first low-priced V-8How many built: 178,749 built in 1932, tens of millions more through 1953Starting price: From $460 for a standard Roadster to $650 for a convertible sedanNickname: ‘Deuce’. Effects of the Automobile. The aesthetic emphasized length and sleek, swept, dart-like features. Electric car broke the 1 mile a minute (97km/h) Frenchman Camille Jenatzy`s electric car broke the one mile a minute barrier. Chevy said something like, “For a Corvette competitor? They eagerly adopted Mustang as an entirely new concept of a moderately priced “personal car” with room for four—with a sporty profile aimed squarely at the emerging market of baby boomers, who had started hitting driving age just a few years earlier. Unknown. forward between the front wheels. Although the company was acquitted, the charge and trial were devastating to Ford’s broader reputation. Some forms of racing are dominated by big budgets and sophisticated engineering. After formation of the Ford Motor Company, the first Ford car was assembled at the Mack Avenue plant in July 1903. automatic transmission development mushroomed in all directions -- torque converters Advertisement featuring the 1960 Chevrolet Corvair. Pretty much anyone with a passing knowledge of cars, or who lived through the 1970s, knows what happened next. May 14, 1886. Automobiles: No invention has so transformed the landscape of the United States as the automobile, and no other country has so thoroughly adopted the automobile as its favorite means of transportation. exhaust emissions, and new safety standards to improve highway crash survival. After Olds and Cadillac In 1953, each of GM’s then fiercely independent divisions showcased their vision for a “sports car.” Most had simply restyled cars already in production. 1. Jun 4, 1895. Clunkers could beget crowd-pleasers. For one, the 10-gallon fuel tank was positioned under the front seat and fuel was gravity-fed to the engine. It won uncountable races as the Boss 302. An argument can be made that it was the ’55 Chevrolets’ redesigned bodies—with their balanced proportions and restrained chrome—that helped push Chevrolet’s 1955 model-year production to its highest ever. Early automobiles were comparatively expensive since they were assembled by hand. Ransom Eli Olds, who had started experimenting with self-propelled vehicles in 1887, was working on several different prototypes in his company’s Detroit factory in 1901 when a fire destroyed the building and three of those prototypes. But even while the Dodges were a crucial element to Ford’s success, they weren’t all that impressed with the Model T. John Dodge is quoted as saying, “Someday the people who own a Ford are going to want an automobile.”. It ran well on dirt roads and fields because it could twist as it rolled over bumps. Beginning about 1900, most cable trackage was replaced by electric cars; but the Seattle lines lasted until the 1930s, and a portion of the San Francisco system continued in operation in the 21st century. Its rugged 7-horsepower single-cylinder engine, simple 2-speed planetary transmission, chain drive and high ground clearance were strong enough to survive the rigors of the nation’s largely rugged, rutted dirt tracks. The first Chevrolet to outsell Ford (beyond the 1927 Ford shutdown for Model A changeover)How many built: 623,901 in model year 1931Starting price: $475 to $650Nickname: ‘Stovebolt Six,’ because its fasteners resembled common hardware-store stovebolts. axles and springs frequently broke in deep ruts. Kiichiro Toyoda had traveled to Europe and the United States in 1929 to investigate automobile production and had begun researching gasoline-powered engines in 1930. A simple lever inside the car connected to a rubber blade on the outside that was operated by hand. [2] In the prosperous postwar … bouncing. This article is a list of all current automobile manufacturers of the United States. The minivan debuted in late 1983 as a 1984 model. Or irresistibly curvaceous chrome. Their second car won America's first auto race, a 50-mile, nine-hour marathon from Street paving accelerated and building of the nation’s vast network of roadways began in earnest. Despite ambitious advertisements showing an Airflow pushed over a cliff, then driven away, buyers weren’t planning on driving over cliffs. A flood of them came from Detroit in 1960, and the driving public gobbled them up. (He couldn’t convince rival Henry Ford, the other visionary of the burgeoning industry.) Learn more about Ford’s history and vehicles. Their production totals barely registered on industry sales charts: In 1980, Plymouth sold just over 14,000 front-engine, rear-wheel-drive Gran Furys. The Century Motor Vehicle Company, Syracuse, NY, was a great name for the new century and plans were made to build automobiles of all types of motor power. Rick Carey is an automobile historian and founder/author of Collector Car Auction Reports at rickcarey.com. It’s hard to pinpoint the invention of the electric car to one inventor or country. Gasoline was more like kerosene, and oil was like molasses. The development of the new car, named “Model A,” was announced on August 10, 1927. Ransom Eli Olds built a three-wheeled steam car in 1891 and a gasoline buggy in 1897. The moving assembly line he had pioneered should have made it possible to sell cars at ever-lower prices, but the assembly line’s repetitive tasks proved unattractive at a wage of about $2.25 per 9-hour workday. The history of cars in the US began in 1890, when the Duryea brothers founded their ICE car company. Today Corvette production regularly exceeds 30,000 annually, all tracing their ancestry back to those Polo White 1953 roadsters. engine to heft around all that chrome and sheet metal. The American Thomas Flyer driven by George Schuster was declared the winner of the epic 22,000 mile race in 169 days The first purpose-built racing circuits. A sliding door on the right side meant kids and groceries could be loaded and unloaded in cramped garages and parking-lot spaces. Sperlich’s long-simmering idea ended up creating an entirely new class of vehicle. telling the companies how to design cars -- in the form of tight laws to control It was just a Falcon with new bodywork, built at the same plant in Dearborn, but that made no difference to America’s car buyers in 1964. Toyota and Nissan (then called Datsun) were relatively well established in America when Subaru entered the U.S. market in 1968. Around the time Henry Ford was building his first car, so was Ransom Olds, father of the famous American Oldsmobile. The Airstream disappeared three years later, an opportunity lost. By 1905 gasoline cars were more popular than steam or electric cars because they were easier to use and could travel further without adding fuel. For 6 years they released and sold 13 different models of automobile. The whole scenario changed in the 1970s. Engine maintenance required constant attention. Originally constructed in the traditional manner, with steel panels over a wood frame, the Model 30 in 1923 became the first-ever to offer an all-steel automobile body. The Ford V-8 would go on to upend the American automobile industry. A major redesign after a few years couldn’t overcome the negative impression that had been made and the Vega was discontinued after 1977 with just over 2 million built. Automobiles had an emotional appeal. It rivals that of Henry’s Model T. Without it, there would never have been a “pony car” category, which includes Camaros, Barracudas, Firebirds, Javelins, Challengers and Cougars. Read More: Giant Teapots and Other Quirky Gas Station Designs. Selden licensed his patent to most major American automakers, collecting a fee on every car the… aerodynamics in 1934 -- its Airflow model just didn't sell -- but cars like the The Model T did have its quirks. Brands, Bob Casey. Pontiac offered the Parisienne, a two-seater with a landau roof and pink upholstery, meant to be driven by a chauffeur. One day after it was announced, a crowd estimated at 10,000 people showed up at the Ford plant looking for $5-a-day employment. Or, honing the A coffee table look at car history, including huge closeup photos of classic car engines and the stories of great car marques (brands). Ford Motor Company’s ad agency pitched 18,000 possible names for the new marque. The history of Toyota started in 1933 with the company being a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works devoted to the production of cars under the direction of the founder's son, Kiichiro Toyoda. It was a marriage made in engineering heaven, and their finest accomplishment was the 1934 Chrysler Airflow. “The Cars That Made America” is produced for HISTORY by Magilla Entertainment. Famous for their muscle vehicles, but also for the classic ones, the American made cars list boasts on 3 companies and at least 9 important companies that have made history over the years. Made for Movie. Muscle and finsHow many built: 3,069 between 1957 and 1959Starting price: $3,997 for the hardtop, $4,272 for the convertible. So Estes and DeLorean found a simple workaround to the new-model rule: Make the 335-horsepower engines a mid-year option in the Le Mans. It began to regain popularity following World War II. A more powerful V-8 for a low-priced car offered that innovation. 1900- A steering wheel is … All you had to do was put the shift lever in DRIVE, step on the foot-operated brakes, steering by wheel and gear linkages, and pneumatic tires. At the same time, Their second car won America's first auto race, a 50-mile, nine-hour marathon from Chicago to Evanston, Ill., on Thanksgiving Day, 1895. Chrysler M4 A4 Sherman V. GKN Defence FV 432. Consumers weren’t fooled, sales stalled and Edsel disappeared after three years. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed … … The first pneumatic car tyre Michelin introduces the first pneumatic car tyre Jan 17, 1899. 1 So, it makes sense that only a few short years after the automobile’s mass … Failures (and there were many) often informed later successes. His application included not only the engine but its use in a four-wheeled car. It was upholstered in tan leather. Henry Ford had been experimenting with unusual multi-cylinder engines even before the Model A. filled the junkyards with an endless supply of dirt-cheap interchangeable parts that Olds invented the basic concept of the assembly line and started the Detroit area automobile industry. But 30-some years ago, as station wagons became an increasingly endangered species, the minivan proved a godsend for busy, growing families. Have car, need wash. The united states marked a slow start in the motor vehicle invention and remained stuck in the ‘buggy’ despite making big strides in the manufacture of other industrial products such as watches, typewriters and fire arms at relatively low costs. transmission and heavy clutch. The Automobile and the Environment in American History. Five men were the founders that included Charles F. Saul, Charles Listman, Charles A. Bridgman, Hiram W. Plumb, and William W. Wagoner. Lancaster builds one of first petrol car in UK Jan 1, 1901. By the mid-1950s, automatics were ordered on The small-block engine bristled with innovations. A smoking-fast luxury car for grown-upsHow many built: 1,725Starting price: $4,109Nickname: ‘The Banker’s Hot Rod’. Only 300 were built in 1953 using modified Chevrolet frames, suspension and a 150hp 3-carburetor version of its 236-cubic-inch overhead-valve six. It was chosen by Motor Trend magazine as its Car of the Year. Consumer advocate Ralph Nader featured the Corvair in his pejoratively named book “Unsafe at Any Speed.” In 1965 Chevrolet changed to wishbone rear suspension that eliminated the problem in a seductively redesigned Corvair, but it was too late. Development went on in complete secrecy in a workshop used by Henry Ford’s revered friend, inventor Thomas Edison, which Ford had moved to Michigan. That car was a Taxi, there were about one hundred taxis operating on New York's streets that year. suspension on all wheels, ultra-low tire pressures and isolating the body on a He designed the Model T as a workhorse of a car, building it with light, affordable vanadium steel that offered rugged durability and a supple suspension that stood up to the era’s potholed wagon roads. The resulting Airflow of 1934 was like nothing else worldwide. It grew out of experiments Carl Breer began in the late 1920s with a small 20×30 inch cross-section wind tunnel suggested by the Wright brothers. Its eight-cylinder engine produced a claimed 265 horsepower, nearly twice that of its most powerful American contemporary. Another trick was independent front suspension on coil springs. Although a lightweight frame was used, the one-piece steel body provided chassis rigidity, an auto industry first. Even with the heaviest formal coachwork, the Model J could easily exceed 100 mph. Black cured much more quickly and it became the standard (and only) color offered from 1914 to 1926. Bucket seats, a floor-mounted shifter for the standard four-speed manual transmission and rack-and-pinion steering sported up the driving experience. In 1947 Studebaker came out with the first new car design. All had Powerglide automatic transmissions. The first automobile to be mass produced in the United States was the 1901 Curved Dash Oldsmobile, built by the American car manufacturer Ransome Eli Olds (1864-1950). For years, the company proudly used the motto, “The Best Built Car in America.” Unfortunately, the … Olds invented the basic concept of the assembly line and started the Detroit area automobile industry. The 30-mpg K-car may not get much respect these days, but it turned out to be the right medicine for the early 80s: Hal Sperlich was the right car guy to get it built efficiently, with reasonable quality, and Lee Iacocca was equally right to sell it. And nearly 10 million sales later, it still exists today, cleverly styled by Ford’s designers so if you draped a 2017 Mustang with a parachute it is still recognizable as a Mustang. Two-tone 1955 Chevrolet Bel Air with whitewall tires. Early history: Model T and assembly line Henry Ford built his first experimental car in a workshop behind his home in Detroit in 1896. The social effects of the automobile were as great. Steam-power was a product of 18th-century Britain. In this rundown of influential American cars, we see visionary engineers scheming ways to go faster and farther, in greater comfort and style. DeSoto proudly noted it was the only standard (i.e., not ordered as an option) engine in 1957 to make one horsepower per cubic inch displacement. A moderately popular early bid to build a car for the massesHow many built: 23,100 between 1908 and 1910Starting price: $900Nickname: ‘The White Streak’. Toyota's first passenger car, the 1936 Model AA, was a blatant copy of Dodge and Chevrolet designs, and some parts could actually be interchanged with the originals. Come away with me, Lucille,In my merry Oldsmobile.Down the road of life we fly,Automo-bubbling, you and I. As successful Detroit contract manufacturers, John and Horace Dodge were a major supplier of automotive parts to industry giant Ford. But for many car enthusiasts, that year will be best remembered for the introduction of the Chrysler C-300, which combined testosterone-fueled horsepower and sporty suspension with a handsome, muscular design. The '20s also saw the switch to Vangoner had made its protype in 1899. The building … It also ignited muscle car madness. By merging with other innovative American car brands Plymouth and Dodge, … They were successful in the beginning but it was a short … Production ended when Buick realized it could build on its reputation—and its efficient valve-in-head engine—to sell more expensive cars at higher profits. Then John DeLorean was caught in a drug sting. He successfully ran Buick for Billy Durant’s General Motors at a 1917 salary of a nearly unimaginable $175,000 per year plus stock, then left to start his own car company. Advanced developments that came in this early period before World War I included New transportation. And there E.L. Cord became owner of Duesenberg Motors in 1926 and gave Fred Duesenberg simple instructions: Design the finest, fastest, most luxurious automobile in the world. An ingenious approach to a subcompact carHow many built: 1,966,660 between 1971 and 1977Starting price: $2,090 for the 2-door sedan to $2,328 for the Kammback station wagon. Remember And the Model 10, painted all white with snappy brass trim, was Buick’s most popular model. This subjective list reflects a varied cross-section of a century's worth of American automobile development. Bumpers and grille were treated as massive chrome appendages. The first "car" built in America was a horse buggy with American automotive history isn’t just about impressively brawny engines. 1896 – The Duryea brothers start the first American car manufacturing company in Springfield, Massachusetts. be getting around a little faster than a horse could take you. National Motor Museum/Heritage Images/Getty Images, The first Dodge Brothers automobileHow many built: 596,770 between 1914 and 1921Starting price: $785 for the Touring Car model. Henry Ford's famous Model T changed all this in the period around WWI and the early by Martin V. Melosi. In the 19th century, French and German engineers built the first gasoline cars. Their place in automotive history was secure though they would play relatively minor part in the development of future 1900s cars. Despite weighing in at a hefty 4,000-plus pounds, the C-300 proved its mettle on the track. The first practical, factory-produced automobiles were little more than motorized Its graceful, swooping lines and opulent materials provided the perfect conveyance for image-conscious Hollywood stars and captains of industry. Car: The Definitive Visual History of the Automobile. Other times they slid slowly to an ignominious grease puddle on the floor. The car manufacturer operates out of Stuttgart, Germany and was founded… [16] The first electric traffic lights were launched in 1927. First time in America and the world: the world’s first electric traffic signal is put into place on the … Chewing-gum magnate Philip K. Wrigley, Bill “Mr. Nowhere was Virgil Exner’s jet-age “Forward Look” body styling taken further than in the top-of-the-line DeSoto Adventurer. The Muscle Car era had its last gasps with the likes of the Pontiac Firebird, as American companies began to create their own compact and subcompact designs to meet the trend and counter the influence of foreign imports, hard lines and sharp edges became the stylistic norm. car weighed over 2 tons and packed 300 hp in a big-inch V8 that gave only 10 or 12 Or irresistibly curvaceous chrome. But when Ford got cash-strapped and couldn’t make payments, the Dodges accepted company stock instead. By the 1890s, Europeans were buying and driving cars made by Benz, Daimler, Panhard, and others, and Americans were buying and driving cars made by Duryea, Haynes, Winton, and others.

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