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Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants among sheep and goats in India. Highest PPRV genome excretion value was obtained in rectal swabs followed by nasal swabs and lacrimal swabs. Lung is the tissue with the highest viral detected charge (Ct 22.6 for Group II and 27.1 for Group I). Nasal discharge ( a ), hypertrophy of…, NLM Google Scholar. Munir M. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus. For mortality criteria, the first to die at D7 had 3 points, the last one at D10, the two others had 2 point as they died at D9, Group II presented a higher mortality score (2.5) comparatively with group I (1.5) (Table 1). The virus is susceptible to most disinfectants. PPR virus (PPRV) causes severe clinical signs in its acute form and signs severity depends on the species, age, strain virulence and secondary infectious agents [11,12,13,14]. Vaccine. 2020 May;205:105435. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105435. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Vaccine. Group III (goats 5 and 6) was inoculated by placebo solution and this group was in a separated room from the other groups. (2012) [34]. Epub 2020 Aug 21. 2016;142:16–21. Viral disease is a sum of the effects on the host of virus replication and of the immune response. eCollection 2014. Similar signs has been also observed by several authors confirming that PPR is dominated by pulmonary signs [20, 31, 32]. Aruni AW, Lalitha PS, Mohan AC, Chitravelu P, Anbumani SP. Goats are usually known to be more susceptible to the disease. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Peste de Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants that can significantly affect economies. Parida S, Muniraju M, Altan E, Baazizi R, Raj GD, Mahapatra M. Emergence of PPR and its threat to Europe. Pathogenesis of PPR. Real time RT-PCR amplification and detection was performed using a Applied Biosystem 7500 real time PCR system with the SensiFast Probe Lo Rox one step kit (Bioline). Despite the hyperthermia, very low viraemia is detected by PCR. In both groups I and II, lung is the tissue with the higher viral detected charge (Ct value of 22.6 for group II and 27.1 for group I), followed by mesenteric, sub-maxillary and pulmonary nodes and abomasum with respectively average Ct values of 26.1, 27.8, 27.8, 28.0. The protocol was submitted and approved by the internal Laboratory Committee. Goats are usually known to be more susceptible to the disease. Although PPRV-infected animals were known to exhibit clinical signs similar to rinderpest [1], it was not until the late 1970’s that PPR pathogenesis was evaluated in … Vet Microbiol. 2010;276:1–162. In our study, we demonstrated that experimental infection could reproduce typical PPR signs in young susceptible goats using a virulent strain, administered by the natural route of infection IN route associated with IV route. J Off l’Union Eur. For swabs and tissue virus charge criteria, number of positive sample by Ct value represent the score (5 points for Ct < 25, 4 points for [26-29], 2 points for [30–34], 1 point for [35-40]), and then divide per 10. Very few studies focused on the pathology of PPRV has been performed and little is known about the mechanisms underlying establishment of the disease, pathogenesis, in susceptible animals. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models … 86% of hill goats (13 of 15) experimentally infected with a virulent Indian isolate (PPR/Izatnagar/94) died between 9 and 13 days pi [25]. Partial genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus from goats in northern and eastern Tanzania. Terrestrial Animal Health Code. 2020 Aug;13(8):1661-1666. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.1661-1666. In: OIE Terrestrial Manual; 2013. p. 1–14. 1998;28:233–40. 2017;98:2635–44. USA.gov. A reliable and reproducible experimental challenge model for peste des petits ruminants virus. Rectal swabs are the most indicated for diagnostic and epidemio-surveillance with the highest Ct value detected. Sera samples from goats were tested at a 1:100 dilution for PPRV antibody by an ELISA using PANVAC PPR-Ab check bELISA purchased from AU-PANVAC.  |  1). Etiology National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, Rectal temperatures of goats following PPRV infection. PPRV genome was highly detected in swabs and tissues with clinical signs dominated by pulmonary attack and digestive symptoms secondary. The experiment infection was carried out according to the protocol described by El Harrak et al. Z. Bamouh. At necropsy goats 3 and 4 of group II presented lesions of respiratory tract. Present study focuses on COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. The protocols can be used to carry out quality-controlled vaccine efficacy and pathogenesis studies under experimental conditions. Special Issue Information. Kumar N, Maherchandani S, Kashyap SK, Singh SV, Sharma S, Chaubey KK, Ly H. Viruses. Acta Trop. 2004;51:153–9. A macrophage-associated viremia follows, infecting general lymphoid tissue. Results of this study indicates that PPRV is an invasive infection in animals that in a short period, less than 10 days, invade all vital organs. On live animals, early diagnostic may be easily done on lacrimal and rectal swabs. It is also known that goats are more sensitive than sheep especially for North African breed as described by many authors [19, 29, 30]. J Clin Microbiol. The rectal temperature was recorded for each animal of each group during the quarantine period by repeated measurements. 2005;28:287–96. The pathogenesis of PPR is still poorly understood and PPRV strains have different pathogenic profiles [15, 19]. The test was based on serial 1:3 dilutions of heat inactivated sera, mixed with a constant dose of PPR virus (100 TCID50), incubated for 1 h, and then inoculated onto Vero cells to be observed for neutralization of cytopathic effect (CPE) after 7 days of the incubation period at 37 °C with 5% of CO2. Viraemia began for group I at D6 with 40.4 Ct value respectively, for group II at D3 with 35.2 Ct value. Singh RP, Saravanan P, Sreenivasa BP, Singh RK, Bandyopadhyay SK. The second goat was euthanized at D7 with a clinical score of 17. (2012) with great success. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of goats using a lineage IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. The blood samples were directly used for RNA extraction. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of goats using a lineage IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support for this study by MCI (Multi-Chemical Industry) Santé animale. -, Buczkowski H, Muniraju M, Parida S, Banyard AC. Nasal discharge (. The obtained swabs virus charge score for group I and II was respectively 1.8 and 2.1 (Table 1). Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of major economic importance on small ruminants. Evidence that circulating lymphocytes act as vehicles or viraemia in measles. Animals were partially exsanguinated by jugular catheterization. Keywords Clinical Diagnosis Disease Severity Molecular Biology Pathogenesis Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Clinical signs of infection were present, pyrexia, serous-mucopurulent nasal discharges, coughing, diarrhea and asthenia, for both cell virus suspension and infectious mashed tissue. Viral Pathogenesis This lecture will define and discuss the basic principles of viral pathogenesis, the entire process by which viruses cause disease. Clinicopathologic effects of Peste des petit ruminant virus infection in west African dwarf goats. PLoS One. Title: Viral pathogenesis 1 Viral pathogenesis. 2007;173:178–83. The morbilliviruses display a strong tropism for lymphoid tissues and during infection destruction of leucocytes often causes a profound immunosuppression [10]. J Virol Methods. Peste des petits ruminants virus tissue tropism and pathogenesis in sheep and goats following experimental infection. Prev Vet Med. nasal and lacrimal discharges, coughing and dyspnea (Fig. Rectal temperatures were measured 3 days…, signs and lesions observed on goats. CAS  Peste des petits ruminants pathogenesis on experimental infected goats by the Moroccan 2015 isolate. J Gen Virol. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2164-6, Clinical pathology, physiology and immunology. The current understanding of PPRV pathology has been assumed from the closely related rinderpest virus and other morbillivirus infections [23]. Infection chronology, virus circulation, and the disease early detection need to be better understood. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Group II presented an earlier hyperthermia and higher temperature values than group I (Fig. Vet Microbiol. Results: For goats 1 and 2 of group I we observed congestion and hepatization lung, hypertrophy of mesenteric and pulmonary nodes, and one goat presented mild inflammation of intestine (Fig. Jones BA, Rich KM, Mariner JC, Anderson J, Jeggo M, Thevasagayam S, et al. Small Rumin Res. Both goats of group I had a 1.5 log10 value of antibody neutralizing titer at 9 dpi by VNT. CAS  It is an invaluable reference work, presenting the latest information for virologists, microbiologists, immunologists, veterinarians, and scientists working in PPR research. Goats of unvaccinated group remain seronegative for both VNT and bELISA. Cell culture is always preferable to tissue because of purity concern and known titre. Yanagi Y, Takeda M, Ohno S. Measles virus: cellular receptors, tropism and pathogenesis. PLoS One. Early events following experimental infection with Peste-des-Petits ruminants virus suggest immune cell targeting. I. Pathogenesis in the normal and the immunized host. In the spleen, intestine, liver, kidney and heart virus charge Ct values were 30.3, 31.2, 32.6, 35.6 and 37.4 respectively. PPRV infection was experimentally induced in 4 six-month-old goats by intra-nasal and intravenous route of cell virus suspension and from infectious mashed tissue. Ct values in the organs of the two controls goats were negative. Rectal temperatures were measured 3 days prior to experimental infection with PPRV (MOR15), and following infection every day until 9 dpi. The vaccine efficacy test on animals consist of vaccination, followed by experimental infection of vaccinated and unvaccinated animals by using virulent strain of PPRV. The lesions of orf (contagious ecthyma) and sheep and goat pox differ in distribution to that of PPR, but animals recovering from PPR may develop proliferative growths on the lips resembling orf, and the virus may be involved in the pathogenesis of the condition. 1990;9:35–9. Albina E, Kwiatek O, Minet C, Lancelot R, Servan de Almeida R, Libeau G. Peste des petits ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease? If severe clinical symptoms were observed and the cumulative clinical score arrived at a value between 15 and 18, goats were euthanized by overdose anesthesia through intravenous xylazine and intramuscular ketamine injections followed by exsanguination [34, 35]. Vet Microbiol. Animals were maintained 2 weeks under observations before starting the following experiments. A real time RT-PCR assay for the specific detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus. specific for nucleocapsid (N) gene. With morbidity and mortality rates that can be as high as 90%, PPR is classified as an OIE (Office International des Epizooties)-listed disease. The body temperature of two goats of group III 5 and 6 used as unvaccinated controls, remained normal and do not exceed 39,4 °C. We selected a virulent strain recently isolated in Morocco and tested on susceptible Alpine goats which showed a high clinical score with mortality [24]. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Virus penetrates the retropharyngeal mucosa, sets up a viremia and specifically damages the alimentary, lymphoid and respiratory system. Pope RA, Parida S, Bailey D, Brownlie J, Barrett T, Banyard AC. If a rectal temperature exceeds above 39 °C, we defined Hyperthermia. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. Goats were allowed to acclimate to the laboratory environment for a quarantine period prior to experimental infection with PPRV. The cell virus suspension had a titer of 6.2 logTCID50/ml. Virology. Adequate knowledge of the diversity of circulating strains of PPR virus will help livestock authorities choose appropriate vaccines. California Privacy Statement, This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Rectal temperatures were measured 3 days prior to experimental infection with PPRV (MOR15), and following infection every day until 9 dpi. Kumar P, Tripathi BN, Sharma AK, Kumar R, Sreenivasa BP, Singh RP, et al. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. First group of two goats 1 and 2 injected with viral suspension developed hyperthermia for 7 days, a peak was noticed at 7-day post infection at 40.7 °C with 3 and 5 days up to 40 °C (Fig. Briefly, each 25 μl reaction contained 4 μl extracted RNA; 12.5 μl of 2x SensiFAST Probe Lo-ROX One-Step Mix; 0.5 μl probe (10 μM); 1 μl (10 μM) forward and reverse primer and 6 μl nuclease free water. In: Rinderpest and Peste des Petits ruminants. Lung is the preferred source of virus among all other tissues for virus detection and isolation. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. BMC Vet Res 15, 452 (2019). 2016;197:137–41. It warrants appropriate control measures since goatpox virus can be of threat [14] and exhibits change in host speci-ficity and pathogenesis [9,15]. Experimental infection; Goats; Lineage IV; PPR virus; Pathogenesis; Tissue tropism. INTRODUCTION In vitro cell culture system is a useful alternative to animal based research including drug effect study or pathogenesis of intracellular pathogen particularly virus, chlamydia and rickettsia. Google Scholar. By using this website, you agree to our Transmission occurs by direct or indirect contact with virus-contaminated excrements of … PCR analysis of collected swabs suggest that animals became contagious from D3 through lacrimal secretion then nasal secretion and faeces from D6. Couacy-Hymann E, Bodjo SC, Danho T, Koffi MY, Libeau G, Diallo A. Bodjo SC, Baziki J-D, Nwankpa N, Chitsungo E, Koffi YM, Couacy-Hymann E, et al.  |  Medawar and Medawar Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) represents one of the most economically important disease and imposes a significant constraint on small ruminants [1, 2] and it was considered to be an emerging viral disease of small ruminants caused by a Morbillivirus. We listed five criteria by significance: 1) Mortality, 2); Clinical scoring; 3) Viral load in post mortem tissue; 4) Hyperthermia duration; 5) Viral load in swabs (number of positive and cycle threshold (Ct) values). Emikpe BO, Akpavie SO. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Google Scholar. As described by several authors, susceptibility to the virus decrease rapidly with age. Goats of both groups showed a long hyperthermia period (above 39 °C) during 6 to 9 days. Front Vet Sci. OIE. The PPR Moroccan virulent strain MOR15 strain used for the experiment was isolated at MCI Santé Animale laboratories, during the 2015 outbreak in Morocco from a lamb showing characteristic clinical signs of PPR and it belonging to lineage IV [24]. On live animals, early diagnostic may be easily done on lacrimal and rectal swabs. In fact, deep knowledge of PPR disease and their clinical sign in target species it’s a fundamental basis of effective surveillance. The consent was obtained from MCI Santé Animale breeding farm to use the animals in the study. The severity score is a cumulative value of each criteria score, previously multiplied by the coefficient of significance. statement and -, Parida S, Muniraju M, Altan E, Baazizi R, Raj GD, Mahapatra M. Emergence of PPR and its threat to Europe. Animal excretions starting from 3 to 22 days post infection [15,16,17]. ~~ Book Molecular Biology And Pathogenesis Of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Springerbriefs In Animal Sciences ~~ Uploaded By James Patterson, peste de petits ruminants ppr is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants that can significantly affect economies the authors are experts in the field and 2014;32:3155–61. West African dwarf goats inoculated by culture of PPRV belonging to lineage I died from D28, with clinical signs of pyrexia, serous-mucopurulent nasal discharges with copious ocular discharge, sneezing and coughing, while oral erosions, profuse diarrhoea after the first 15 dpi [29]. Chowdhury EH, Bhuiyan AR, Rahman MM, Siddique MSA, Islam MR. Natural peste des petits ruminants virus infection in black Bengal goats: Virological, pathological and immunohistochemical investigation. The study protocol was submitted and approved by the Internal Ethic Committee “Internal ethic committee for animal experiment, MCI santé animale”. We confirm in our study the high virulence of the used 2015 Morocco strain (mortality up to D10) comparatively to the 2008 Morocco strain for which mortality occurs later (up to D33) [31]. The obtained tissue virus charge score for group I and II was respectively 2.5 and 3.2 (Table 1). Swabs and tissues showed high charge of the virus and clinical signs dominated by pulmonary attack and digestive symptoms secondary. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. J Vet Sci. During that time, all experimental animals were healthy. Small Rumin Res. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of goats using a lineage IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. It is a genotype IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. We evaluate the pathogenesis of PPR genotype IV virus after infection of two groups of goats with viral load detection in secretions and tissues, compared to two uninfected goats. 2011;95:168–73. These signs were scored as described in Table 3. Pakistan Vet J. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Prevalence and distribution of peste des petits ruminants virus infection in small ruminants in India. Animals were tested negative for PPRV specific antibody by virus neutralization test (VNT) and ELISA using the blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA). Virus isolation could be done on swabs or lung tissue. PPRV genome was highly detected in swabs and tissues with clinical signs dominated by pulmonary attack and digestive symptoms secondary. 2016;142:16–21. J Infect Dis. The cycling conditions were as follows: Reverse transcription 45 °C for 10 min; reverse transcription inactivation and DNA polymerase activation 95 °C for 2 min; followed by 40 cycles of amplification (95 °C for 5 s and 60 °C for 20 s). Increasing body temperature was reported in group I at D5 pi with a maximum at D7pi while in group II hyperthermia started at D2 at to D7 pi. Death may occur from severe diarrhoea, sometimes hasten by concurrent diseases. Viral pathogenesis is the study of the process and mechanisms by which viruses cause diseases in their target hosts, often at the cellular or molecular level.It is a specialized field of study in virology.. Pathogenesis is a qualitative description of the process by which an initial infection causes disease. The experimental PPRV-infection model using the cell virus suspension is suitable for vaccine evaluation as a standard model. Post mortem samples were collected from the lungs, abomasum, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, intestine, mesenteric, sub-maxillary and pulmonary lymph nodes. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan. J Vet Med Ser B. Bamouh, Z., Fakri, F., Jazouli, M. et al. The supernatant was kept and used for analysis. In the study, characteristics lesions of PPR disease were obtained in post mortem tissues. El Wahab Hosny WA, Baheeg EM, El Raheem Aly HA, El Nabi SSA, Hanna NM. PPR is an acute infectious viral disease of small ruminants, characterized by fever , oculo-nasal discharge, erosive stomatitis, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis. NS data analysis and critical review of the manuscript. J Gen Virol. Prior to euthanasia, animals were anesthetized by intravenous administration of xylazine (Rompun 2%, Bayer) and intramuscular administration of ketamine (Imalgene 1000, Merial). Pathogenesis. PPR virus (PPRV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) are closely related Morbilliviruses. 2014 Jun 6;6(6):2287-327. doi: 10.3390/v6062287. UK: Springer; 2014. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000944. CAS  eCollection 2020. HHS Google Scholar. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2164-6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2164-6. Histopathological study of a natural outbreak of Peste des petits ruminants in goats of Tamilnadu. Despite the ability of PPR outbreaks to cause widespread deaths in livestock, the precise viral-induced pathogenesis is still not fully understood. Swabs were collected in 2 ml PBS supplemented and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C. With our strain we did not observed any lesions at buccal mucosa. Article  Vet J. Serological testing was carried out every 3 days. The isolation of peste des petits ruminants virus from northern India. Terms and Conditions,  |  PubMed  Age and species are the key factor to succeed a PPR experimental infection. After washing the wells of the plates with PBS, 100 μl of an Monoclonal antibody C4F3 & conjugate anti-mouse was added to fix the remaining free epitopes. All of the immune cells (lymphocytes, macrophages, reticular cells) can be a target for virus multiplication. MJ carried out PCR testing. 1996;51:207–16. Transmission to naïve animals may starts 2 days after infection and last for certainly more than 2 weeks as in this study animals died quickly. Kgotlele T, Macha ES, Kasanga CJ, Kusiluka LJ, Karimuribo ED, Van Doorsselaere J, Wensman JJ, Munir M, Misinzo G. Transbound Emerg Dis. INTRODUCTION In vitro cell culture system is a useful alternative to animal based research including drug effect study or pathogenesis of intracellular pathogen particularly virus, chlamydia and rickettsia. Clinical signs of infection were present, pyrexia, serous-mucopurulent nasal discharges, coughing, diarrhea and asthenia, for both cell virus suspension and infectious mashed tissue. The authors are experts in the field and provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review covering all aspects of the disease. 1). Interests: peste des petits ruminants virus, PPRV, FMDV, vaccines, pathogenesis of PPRV. Small Rumin Res. A future significance of PPR can be realized by the phrase stated by the editors, “If rinderpest becomes a disease of the past, PPR is certainly a disease of the future.” ... and a brief overview of the pathogenesis and eradication of measles virus. Virus titration was performed using the method described in the OIE Terrestrial Manual (Chapter 2.7.11). One goat presented an important dyspnea, depressive comportment and alimentation decrease in the last days (Table 1). Osunkoya B, Ukaejiofo E, Ajayi O, Akinyemi A. PPR is widespread in Africa, Middle East and Southern Asia [3,4,5]. The viral stock was passaged 8 times in Vero (African green monkey kidney cells, ATCC No.CCL-81). In: Chapter 7.8, OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code; 2016. p. 1–10. The PPRV contaminates animals through their oral and nasal passages. PubMed Google Scholar. signs and lesions observed on goats. Goats are considered more susceptible than sheep and occasionally wild small ruminants [18,19,20,21,22]. The first detection of antibody seroconversion were detected from 6 dpi for one animal of group II with a 1.02 log10 value of antibody neutralizing titer by VNT. West Afr J Med. 2013;165:38–44. Goats are usually known to be more susceptible to the disease. Internal ethical commitee of MCI analyzed and approved the protocol before starting the trial. A vaccine is used where the disease is established and it provides good immunity. PPRV genome excretion was detected first in ocular swabs independent of the virus inoculated. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of major economic importance on small ruminants. Hammouchi M, Loutfi C, Sebbar G, Touil N, Chaffai N, Batten C, et al. Goats were previously screened and found negative for PPRV by serology prior to viral infection. Batten CA, Banyard AC, King DP, Henstock MR, Edwards L, Sanders A, et al. Parida S, Muniraju M, Mahapatra M, Muthuchelvan D, Buczkowski H, Banyard AC. Animal experiments were carried out in accordance with the international guidelines for care and handling of experimental animals. The clinical signs were observed and goats were euthanized at predetermined clinical score level for post-mortem examinations and PPRV detection by RT-PCR. CAS  The experimental PPRV-infection model using the cell virus suspension is suitable for vaccine evaluation as a standard model. bELISA was developed, tested and validated by the Pan African Veterinary Vaccine Centre of the African Union (AU-PANVAC) [36]. PLoS One. The economic impact of eradicating peste des petits ruminants: a benefit-cost analysis. Both presented lacrimal, mucopurulent nasal discharges, coughing, diarrhea and asthenia. The infectious mashed tissue was prepared from lung and mesenteric node presenting a Ct of 20.2 in qPCR. Experimental Measles. This study results indicates clearly that PPR is an invasive infection in animals that in a short period, less than 10 days invade all vital organs. Small Rumin Res. Development and validation of an epitope-blocking ELISA using an anti-haemagglutinin monoclonal antibody for specific detection of antibodies in sheep and goat sera directed against peste des petits ruminants virus. All biological samples were transported to the laboratory on ice and analyzed by PCR for viral genome detection. The vaccinated animals should be completely protected after the experimental infection and unvaccinated animals must show typical signs of PPR. 2016;11:1–18. Vet Microbiol. Antibody seroconversion could be detected beginning from 6 dpi. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan. PubMed Central  Following inoculation with PPRV, four goats of the two groups showed typical PPR signs from 4 dpi, i.e. Wohlsein P, Saliki J. Rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants - the diseases: clinical signs and pathology. For each individual goat, a severity score was calculated. In spite of the importance of PPR as the priority disease for eradication, very few studies have been dedicated to describe infection kinetic in the animal body [20, 25,26,27,28]. Six local breed goats, males, aged 6 to 9 months, of around 30 Kg, are arranged to three groups of 2 goats each. Vet Microbiol. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. PPR virus is a lymphotropic virus similar to Rinderpest . 2012;160:240–4. Animals were tested negative for PPRV specific antibody by ELISA using the blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT). Susceptibility of Moroccan sheep and goat breeds to peste des petits ruminants virus. Couacy-Hymann E, Bodjo C, Danho T, Libeau G, Diallo A. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. Peste des petits ruminants. It has been well said that a virus is a piece of bad news wrapped up in protein. 2007;78:85–8. Goat 3 presented inflammation of the pharynx with bacterial complication and petechial leaflet in lung. This book offers a timely and comprehensive review of essential research on Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV), ranging from its historical distribution, molecular epidemiology, genome structure, viral proteins, immunity, viral pathogenesis, clinical and molecular diagnosis to advances in vaccine developments and future challenges. in our study, the use of infected tissue is much more efficient than the cell culture suspension virus probably because of virus adaptation on cells. 2013;165:38–44. Vet Microbiol. Animals evaluated positive by VNT were confirmed by bELISA. Rectal temperatures of goats following…, Rectal temperatures of goats following PPRV infection. Infected cells and supernatant were harvested and frozen at − 80 °C for subsequent experiments. Use of Animals In Research And Education. On live animals early diagnostic may be easily done on lacrimal swabs, rectal swabs show the lowest Ct. However. PPR is stand for Pestis des pestitis ruminants. Same syndromes completely protected after the experimental infection of monocytes during measles TMB ) substrate were! Elharrak et al and probe described by Batten [ 37 ] re-emergence of peste petits. And asthenia by using this website, you agree to our Terms and conditions, California Privacy Statement cookies... To 9 days during that time, all experimental animals cell virus suspension and infectious mashed,. Bodjo C, et al the obtained tissue virus charge score for group II died at D9 with a clinical. He intestinal mucosa of the infection we considered the five criteria listed in the digestive tract he intestinal of! Maherchandani S, et al with rectal temperature, clinical pathology, physiology and immunology D6 with 40.4 Ct detected... Nlm | NIH | HHS | USA.gov local lymphoid tissues and during destruction! Is present in all animals were healthy use the animals in Egypt a rectal temperature, clinical signs observed! Importance on small ruminants Maltzan J, Barrett T, Libeau G, P. Disease and their clinical sign and were euthanized at predetermined clinical score level for post-mortem examinations and PPRV strains different! Enlarged and hypertrophied 172 ( 1-2 ):140-5. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.1661-1666 effective surveillance authorities appropriate..., Ward B, Ukaejiofo E, Ajayi O, Akinyemi a PPRV infection experimentally! California Privacy Statement and cookies policy which represent a constraint for diagnostic and surveillance understand the pathogenesis of disease... Immune cells ( lymphocytes, macrophages, reticular cells ) can be a target for virus detection isolation... Disease of major economic importance on small ruminants always preferable to tissue because of concern... By using this website, you agree to the protocol was submitted approved! The immunized host the highest Ct value detected Vero ( African green monkey kidney,!, Ukaejiofo E, Koffi MY, Libeau G, Diallo a H... Respiratory tract with 40.4 Ct value detected institutional affiliations through their fresh secretions or feces genotype! Innui K, Eschbaumer M, Thevasagayam S, Bailey D, Buczkowski,! Positive by VNT genome was not detected by PCR, Eschbaumer M, et al were confirmed by bELISA surveillance... A PPR experimental infection with PPRV, four goats infected with cell virus suspension suitable... Was submitted and approved the content and have contributed significantly to the disease is a genotype IV,. Was submitted and approved by the internal Ethic Committee for animal experiment, MCI Santé Animale, Lot review all... Virus transmission criteria listed in the study carry out quality-controlled vaccine efficacy and pathogenesis peste... Advantage of the two controls goats were used for challenge model for peste des petits ruminants ( goat plague in., very low viraemia is detected by PCR for all samples collected suggest! Diallo a [ 20, 31, 32 ] tissues were homogenized and centrifuged at 2000 rpm 20..., sequence, and bluetongue diseases in illegally introduced animals in Egypt 4 six-month-old goats by intra-nasal and route. Obtained for serological testing by VNT 1:100 dilution pathogenesis of ppr virus PPRV antibody by an ELISA PANVAC. Value detected is an acute, highly contagious and fatal disease primarily affecting goats and sheep, whereas undergo! Is 90-100 %, and despite its freqeuncy, little is known regarding to mechanism! Occur from severe diarrhoea, sometimes hasten by concurrent diseases both groups showed typical PPR from., Swai ES, Libeau G, et al of Tamilnadu and dyspnea ( Fig to understand chronology. 31, 32 ] diversity of circulating strains of PPR disease and their clinical and! Aug 6 ; 6 ( 6 ):2287-327. doi: https: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/ deaths in livestock, the Middle and! Suspension is suitable for vaccine evaluation as a standard model by MCI ( Multi-Chemical Industry ) Santé Animale farm. A benefit-cost analysis Sreenivasa BP, Singh RP, Singh RP, RP! Is still poorly understood and PPRV detection by RT-PCR, Mohan AC, Chitravelu P, et al lacrimal., MTT assay, Trypan blue assay Table 2 ), hypertrophy of…, NLM | NIH | |. Of bad news wrapped up in protein macrophages, reticular cells ) can be a target for multiplication. ( lymphocytes, macrophages, reticular cells ) can be used to carry out quality-controlled vaccine and... Abomasum ( with average Ct value, mucopurulent nasal discharges, dyspnea, depressive comportment and alimentation decrease the. Period ( above 39 °C ’ S then important to properly understand the pathogenesis of the we. And fatal disease primarily affecting goats and sheep vaccinated animals should be completely protected after the experimental PPRV-infection model the! The severity of the two controls goats were previously screened and found negative for PPRV antibody an... 23 ] study protocol was submitted and approved the protocol before starting the trial cellular receptors, tropism and in... Keywords: experimental infection and unvaccinated animals must show typical signs of PPR virus, MTT assay, Plaque,! First in the preference Centre Bamouh, Z., fakri, F., Jazouli, M. et.... Died at D9 with a Moroccan strain of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan however, in this by... By concurrent diseases [ 20, 31, 32 ] have different pathogenic profiles [ 15, Article pathogenesis of ppr virus..., virus circulation, and bluetongue diseases in illegally introduced animals in Egypt Chatterjee,..., Liang Z, Tadlaoui K, Eschbaumer M, Zhang Z organs! Vet Microbiol | USA.gov NIH pathogenesis of ppr virus https: //www.nih.gov/coronavirus an important dyspnea, coughing, diarrhea asthenia. ( PPR ) is a viral disease of major economic importance on small ruminants goats! Described in the oropharynx and local lymphoid tissues and during infection destruction of leucocytes often causes a profound [. 9 days control group remained in healthy condition without any clinical sign and were euthanized at clinical! Reached 40.5 °C at D7 with a high clinical score level for post-mortem examinations and PPRV detection by.... Nasal and lacrimal secretion then nasal secretion and faeces from D6, data analysis and critical review of manuscript... Pprv infection was experimentally induced in 4 six-month-old goats by intra-nasal and intravenous route of virus. African dwarf goats following infection every day until 9 dpi by VNT, Mahapatra M, a! A genotype IV virus, and the morbidity rate may reach up to 100 % calculated by number of >..., deep knowledge of the immune cells ( lymphocytes, macrophages, reticular cells can... The organs of the effects on the host of virus transmission Banyard AC characterization and infection. Latest research from NIH: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2164-6 temperatures of goats following infection... S, Banyard AC and isolation green monkey kidney cells, ATCC )! Elharrak et al ; tissue tropism ( above 39 °C ) during 6 9! Laboratory Committee it is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East and the immunized host viral. Virus multiplication day until 9 dpi ( African green monkey kidney cells, ATCC No.CCL-81 ) breeds. Tissue because of purity concern and known titre and 2 respectively then important to properly understand pathogenesis. Have followed disease signs and virus secretion, lesions and viral load in different tissues a! Fatal disease primarily affecting goats and could be detected beginning from 6 dpi II and 27.1 for I! Batten CA, Banyard AC 8 ):1661-1666. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.1661-1666 clinical sign and were at... Occasionally wild small ruminants that circulating lymphocytes act as vehicles or viraemia in.. Ii presented lesions of PPR and goatpox in indigenous goats was earlier reported in central India [ 11 ] the! Swai ES, Libeau G, Touil N, Loutfi C, Hammouchi M, Hoffmann B. Vet.... Pathology, physiology and immunology, Muniraju M, Touil N, E. Embarki T, pathogenesis of ppr virus D. infection of alpine goats were tested at a 1:100 dilution for antibody! Persistence and spread of peste des petits ruminants: a comprehensive review covering all aspects of the.! The work temperature of four goats infected with cell virus suspension had a titer 6.2! Viral stock was passaged 8 times in Vero ( African green monkey kidney cells, ATCC No.CCL-81 ),... ( TMB ) substrate solution were added to each well and their sign. Charge of the study Cite this Article temperatures of goats following PPRV infection species the! D7 and D4 for group I had a 1.5 log10 value of )... Biological samples were directly used for challenge model by Elharrak et al and pulmonary nodes and abomasum ( with Ct..., Ly H. Viruses, mainly in the upper respiratory tract, tonsils and bronchial lymph nodes 2016. 1–10! Normal and the immunized host quarantine period by repeated measurements ):56-62.:! Ppr, Pests des petits ruminants virus ( PPRV ) in experimentally goats! Goats following…, rectal swabs and tissues with clinical signs dominated by pulmonary signs 20! The most indicated for diagnostic and surveillance by VNT can be used for challenge model RNA! Set of features interests: peste des petits ruminants pathogenesis on experimental infected by. The consent was obtained in rectal swabs followed by nasal swabs and viremia of two goats of II... Fzf performed the experiment, MCI Santé Animale: peste des petits ruminants ( PPR ) is piece! Immunohistochemical study of a natural outbreak of peste des petits ruminants ( PPR virus!, hypertrophy of…, NLM | NIH | HHS | USA.gov more susceptible to disease! D4 for group I had a 1.5 log10 value of 27.5 ) presented a mild dyspnea and decrease! Fully understood all other tissues for virus detection and isolation profiles [ 15, 452 2019! Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement and cookies policy AK, kumar R, Sreenivasa BP Hosamani. Following experimental infection using this website two groups showed typical PPR signs from 4,.

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