The serial discontinuity concept of lotic ecoystems. Article Controls on gas transfer velocities in a large river. Oeding S, Taffs KH. To estimate the community structure for each site, the Mothur program  was used to normalize all data sets with respect to the least-well-represented data set (11049 sequences). Comparing the numerous studies of diatoms and eutrophication in oceans [14, 15] and lakes [16, 17] to date, it is clear that the present understanding of diatoms is relatively poor for lotic and oligotrophic rivers . 1997;67:345–66. 2003;300:958–61. Our study revealed that benthic diatoms are of particular significance in characterizing motile guild in riverine environments, which provides insights into diatom biogeography and biogeochemical cycles in large river ecosystems. Figure S15. J Yangtze River Sci Res Inst. 2016;47:175–86. 2003;506–509:519–24. Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: anew generation of protein database search programs. Controls on diatom biogeography in the ocean. Hydrobiologia. Figure S14. Lin Z-H, Mo X-G, Li H-X, Li H-B. Inﬂuence of the ratio of planktonic to benthic diatoms on lacustrine organic matter d13C from Erlongwan maar lake, northeast China Luo Wanga,⇑, Anson W. Mackayb, Melanie J. Lengc,d, Patrick Riouala, Virginia N. Panizzob, Houyuan Lua, Zhaoyan Gua, Guoqiang Chua, Jingtai Hana, Christopher P. Kendrickd a Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment, Institute of Geology and … 2018;33:355–80. CAS Variation in community composition explained by environmental, spatial, and spatially structured environmental components. Figure S8. Liu T, Zhang AN, Wang J, Liu S, Jiang X, Dang C, et al. Spearman relationships between diatoms and dissolved carbon dioxide. Rarefaction curves of diatom richness for 279 samples. JWW and QXL performed the research. The width of ribbons for each diatoms is directly proportional to their relative abundance in each sample type. Field CB, Behrenfeld MJ, Randerson JT, Falkowski P. Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. 2016;32:3246–51. Monteith reported the linear correlation between net primary production (NPP) and PAR absorbed by green foliage . 3c). Environmental monitoring: inferring the diatom index from next-generation sequencing data. The environmental distance matrix (normalized Euclidean distance) was generated with a normalized combination of environmental variables such as water temperature, COD, SS, DO, pH, NH4-N, NO3-N, TN, TP, and DOC for water samples as well as TOC, pH, NH4-N, NO3-N, TN, and TP for sediment samples. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Although environmental differentiation seemed more important than spatial dispersing in shaping a diatom community, neither could fully explain the total variation in diatom composition. Protist. For each sampling sites, longitude, latitude, and altitude were recorded by a handheld GPS (Magellan, USA). Developed for an introductory-level oceanography course. Article Heino J, Bini LM, Karjalainen SM, Mykrä H, Soininen J, Vieira LCG, et al. In the pelagic zone, photosynthetic organisms as well as active predators are dominant. One-way ANOVA analysis confirmed that water temperature of the Yangtze River was significantly different between spring and autumn (P < 0.01), with the water temperature (average 21 °C) in autumn being more conducive than that (average 11 °C) in spring for planktonic diatom growth . One-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) was carried out to test significance of group differences using the vegan package in R. Distance-decay patterns of diatom community similarity were described by considering geographical distance and environmental distance from the site location to river mouth among sample sites. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Since diatoms were reported to predominate in phytoplankton at high nitrogen to phosphorus ratio (N:P > 16) in water , we investigated the response of planktonic and benthic diatoms to TN:TP in the Yangtze River. Zhang W, Yuan J, Han J, Huang C, Li M. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on sediment deposition and erosion in the middle Yangtze River: a case study of the Shashi Reach. Arai H, Fukushima T. Impacts of long-term increase in silicon concentration on diatom blooms in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. Beaulieu JJ, Shuster WD, Rebholz JA. Biogeography studies aim to reveal the spatial and temporal distribution of biodiversity and provide insight into the mechanisms that generate and sustain diversity . Figure S1. The partial Mantel test demonstrated that both geographical and environmental distances played important roles in constraining diatom composition and distribution (Additional file 1: Table S2). 2004;121:135–40. Forams are lumped into two groups: benthic foraminifera that live on the sea floor, and planktonic foraminifera that live suspended in the water column. Privacy Correspondence to Nature. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology: Vol. Amplicons were purified using the AxyPrep DNA Gel Extraction Kit (Axygen Bioscience, Union City, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions and quantified using QuantiFluorTM-ST (Promega, USA). Many studies examined the diversity and composition of planktonic [19, 20] or benthic diatoms [18, 21, 22] based on morphological identification. A set of spatial variables was generated through the use of principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM) analysis based on the longitude and latitude coordinates of each sampling site . Figure S13. Benthic diatoms in the motile guild prevailed at most stations along the whole river, whereas those in high-profile and planktic guilds dominated upstream and downstream reaches, respectively. Planktonic and periphytic diatoms as indicators of stress on great rivers of the United States: testing water quality and disturbance models. PubMed Bopp L, Aumont O, Cadule P, Alvain S, Gehlen M. Response of diatoms distribution to global warming and potential implications : a global model study. 2011;47:W12531. Dalu T, Wasserman RJ, Magoro ML, Mwedzi T, Froneman PW, Weyl OLF. Int Rev Hydrobiol. 4c). The life of diatoms in the world’s oceans. Benthic (adjective) Pertaining to the benthos; living on the seafloor, as opposed to floating in the ocean. Google Scholar. The rate of distance-decay of diatom communities was calculated as the slope of ordinary least-squares regression line fitted to the relationship between geographic distance and community similarity. A total of 24 sampling stations and around 5,700 specimens of foraminifera were recognized on thin-section analysis and classified into two major categories: planktonic and benthic. 2016;47:130–42. 2012;10:497–506. Although the most ideal sampling should be the synchronous monitoring in both plateau and non-plateau areas in the same year, the above remedial sampling is helpful considering insignificant inter-annual variations of water quality, riverine habitat, and aquatic organism in the plateau in recent years [66, 67]. of or relating to or happening on the bottom under a body of water. Benthic and planktonic GPP varied strongly along the trophic gradient. PubMed Central 2016;113:E1516–25. Typical benthic diatoms, such as Pinnularia, Paralia, and Aulacoseira, experienced considerable reduction in relative abundance downstream of the Three Gorges Dam and the Xiluodu Dam, two of the world’s largest dams. Significant differences in abundance of benthic diatoms upstream and downstream of Xiluodu Dam (a) and Three Gorges Dam (b). As a result, the most widespread and diverse diatom genera are derived from 46 marine stations. c Interpretations on the biogeographic patterns of diatom communities, with main influencing factors such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), channel slope, and nutrients characterized by ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphate (TN:TP). Solar-radiation and productivity in tropical ecosystems. PubMed Price MN, Dehal PS, Arkin AP. PubMed 2013;10:996–8. 2018;45:1582–92. The phylogeny tree, constructed by representative OTUs (accounting for > 90% sequence in all samples) and reference sequences (Additional file 1: Figure S2), further confirmed the accuracy of taxonomic assignment. Ecol Monogr. Ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphate. Diatoms are ubiquitous and diverse species of single-celled, eukaryotic, photosynthetic microorganisms , and are often the dominant primary producers in marine and freshwater ecosystems . Article In order of abundance, the most common riverine diatoms in water and sediment of the Yangtze River were Cyclotella, Navicula, Pinnularia, Stephanodiscus, and Cymbella genera. CAS Compilations of deep sea benthic foraminifer oxygen isotopes have revealed the long history of global climate change over the past 100 million years. 4c). Limnol Oceanogr. 32, No. Montagnes DJS, Franklin DJ. WHERE DO THEY LIVE? 40, Chemical ecology in aquatic systems, Guest Editors: Francesca Gherardi & Roberto Berti, pp. Buma AGJ, Engelen AH, Gieskes WWC. Wang, J., Liu, Q., Zhao, X. et al. Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Other factors affecting interactions, such as river velocity, turbulent diffusion, algal sinking, and grazing remain to be further investigated . 2018;442:66–78. Terms and Conditions, Planktonic Cymatopleura and Navicula, and benthic Asterionella, Biddulphia, Diatoma, and Encyonema genera preferred to high PAR conditions. A myriad of life forms inhabit these vast regions. Inner circular diagram shows relative abundance of different diatom genus in six sample types. Nevertheless, the aforementioned environmental factors are subject to change due to human interference. Both planktonic and benthic species are sensitive to changes in food availability as well as physical environmental parameters, such as salinity and temperature. Variation partitioning of benthic diatom community matrices: effects of multiple variables on benthic diatom communities in an Austral temperate river system. At each sampling site, 10 L of well-mixed water was collected and then filtered onto 0.22 μm polycarbonate membranes (Millipore, USA) within 24 h. Filter membranes and sediment samples were stored in the laboratory at – 80 °C until further analysis took place. 2016;7:1474. statement and 2015;49:7597–605. New York: Wiley-Interscience; 1963. Third, the weak relationship between annual-averaged TN:TP and alpha-diversity of planktonic diatoms along the Yangtze River might be resulted from the selection of simpler indicator for nutrient level in a relatively oligotrophic river (Additional file 1: Figure S14). Planktonic and benthic diatoms were not always consistent in dominant genera (top 20, the relative abundance ranged from 55.6 to 83.6%) (Fig. Rarefaction curves (Additional file 1: Figure S1) together with high values of Good’s coverage ranging from 0.9854 to 0.9992 illustrated that OTUs obtained by the current sequencing depth gave a reasonable representation of the diatom communities. Science. 2009;325:1539–41. As adjectives the difference between planktonic and benthic is that planktonic is of or pertaining to plankton while benthic is pertaining to the benthos; living on the seafloor, as opposed to floating in the ocean. Ward JV, Stanford JA. Segata N, Izard J, Waldron L, Gevers D, Miropolsky L, Garrett WS, et al. In benthic diatoms, over 40% abundance was taken by motile-guild species capable of moving fast and choosing the best microhabitat under certain circumstances (Fig. Metagenomic biomarker discovery and explanation. Do benthic and planktonic diatoms produce equivalent effects in crustaceans? For a better understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of both planktonic and benthic diatom communities, LefSe analysis was used considering its advantages in identifying differentially abundant taxa under different environmental conditions . CAS Ecol Indic. Generally when they hatch out, they are planktonic and at some point in their life ... A giant squid is definitely not benthic, although perhaps I should not say that because we don't know much about them except that they can be at least 15 meters long and sperm whales eat them. To investigate the difference of diatoms in the plateau and the non-plateau areas, we implemented an additional synchronous monitoring along the source river of the Yangtze located at the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in July 2017 (the ideal month for sampling in the plateau), collected 12 water and 12 sediment samples respectively at 12 sites. Boyd PW, Watson AJ, Law CS, Abraham ER, Trull T, Murdoch R, et al. planktonic | nektonic | Planktonic is a see also of nektonic. Nutrient level (TN:TP) had different effects on the diversity and variation of planktonic and benthic diatoms. Diatom ecological guilds display distinct and predictable behavior along nutrient and disturbance gradients in running waters. Ecol Indic. Consequently, we provided the first molecular biogeographic pattern of both planktonic and benthic diatoms in the largest river in Asia (Fig. (2017) reported similar ndings in an investigatio n on patterns and pr ocesses in microeukaryotes from coastal Hydrobiologia. 2009;459:185–92. As adjectives the difference between planktonic and nektonic is that planktonic is of or pertaining to plankton while nektonic is swimming independently of currents. 2007;584:133–43. Aquat Bot. Diatom species that characterize each sample group were identified with indicator species analysis using labdsv and indval packages in R software . Areal benthic, planktonic, and total chlorophyll a composition of Tasman Bay sites. Article Both the planktonic bacterial community (PBC) and benthic bacterial community (BBC) are important for biogeochemical processes in freshwater lakes. This great expanse displays an even greater diversity in terms of the physical conditions of the different regions within it, and also the aquatic plants and animals found there. Water Res. 2009;75:7537–41. 2013;40:2238–48. Nat Methods.