3. (1996) 138:187. doi: 10.1136/vr.138.8.187, 4. doi: 10.20506/37.3.2899, 75. Herzog CM, de Glanville WA, Willett BJ, Kibona TJ, Cattadori IM, Kapur V, et al. Recent epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Torsson E, Kgotlele T, Berg M, Mtui-Malamsha N, Swai ES, Wensman JJ, et al. Front Vet Sci. Rev Sci Techn. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.06.013, 55. 22. Viruses. (2016) 6:1–7. Parida S, Muniraju M, Altan E, Baazizi R, Raj GD, Mahapatra M. Emergence of PPR and its threat to Europe. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) outbreak in southern, Tanzania. Kardjadj M. Epidemiological situation of transboundary animal diseases in North African countries—proposition of a regional control strategy. Trop Anim Health Product. First, title and abstract were reviewed to determine their eligibility. Lyons NA, Jemberu WT, Chaka H, Salt JS, Rushton J. Field-derived estimates of costs for Peste des Petits Ruminants vaccination in Ethiopia. Field serological investigation for peste des petits ruminants, foot-and-mouth disease, and bluetongue diseases in illegally introduced animals in Egypt. Rome: The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health (2016). Seroprevalence of Peste Des Petits Ruminants virus from samples collected in different regions of Tanzania in 2013 and 2015. A one-time vaccination can immunize ruminants for life against Peste des Petits Ruminants or sheep and goat plague. In the future, the development of a marker vaccine with a robust companion test may help in serosurveillance to identify infection in vaccinated animals to control PPR disease. Pastoralism. 4. Since the suspected incursion of PPR into Tanzania in 2008, the disease has continued to spread throughout the country, and is now endemic in most regions, despite vaccination campaigns. LONDON (AP) — Britain authorized a COVID-19 vaccine for use Wednesday, greenlighting the first shot backed up by rigorous scientific review. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Outbreak of Peste des Petits Ruminants among critically endangered Mongolian Saiga and Other Wild Ungulates, Mongolia, 2016–2017. The economic losses attributed to PPR in Tanzania were reported by one grey literature report, two theses and a review article. Salih HAM, Elfadil AAM. Economic losses may be due to depletion of the small ruminant population, by mortalities associated with the disease, or by culling as a control measure (59). Agga GE, Raboisson D, Walch L, Alemayu F, Tesfaye D, Bahiru G, et al. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12052, 73. History and current status of peste des petits ruminants virus in Tanzania. Flow diagram of the systematic review and identification of eligible articles. Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease of livestock, while Brucella abortus is a bacterial disease found among animals, which can be transmitted to humans, mostly through milk products. Spillover of peste des petits ruminants virus from domestic to wild ruminants in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania. Dhar P, Sreenivasa BP, Barrett T, Corteyn M, Singh RP, Bandyopadhyay SK. 12. Torsson E, Berg M, Misinzo G, Herbe I, Kgotlele T, Päärni M, et al. (2014) 20:2184. doi: 10.3201/eid2012.141116, 71. The sero-prevalence of PPR in Tanzania was reported in six of the studies performed between 2008 and 2016 and results are summarized in Table 1. Front Vet Sci. (2019) 3: 12–6. “The threat of peste des petits ruminants: progress in vaccine development for disease control.” Vaccine. We grateful to Tetiana Miroshnychenko of the Zoetis-ALPHA Initiative Zaventem team and Dr. Isaac Odeyemi from Zoetis Outcomes Research team for guidance. 2019 Dec 12;6:455. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00455. (2019). Improving the delivery of veterinary services in Africa: insights from the empirical application of transaction costs theory in Uganda and Kenya. Muse EA, Karimuribo ED, Gitao C, Misinzo G, Mellau LS, Msoffe PL, et al. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.12.007, 83. It is likely therefore, that the inability of vaccination programs to effectively contain the disease may be attributed to other factors such as poor coverage of vaccination programs, lack of control of livestock movement, and the high fecundity due to the dynamic nature of small ruminant populations (26, 87). (2013) 165:38–44. |, https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.592662, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2020.592662/full#supplementary-material, https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/92405/livestockMasterPlan.Tanzania.pdf?sequence=1, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). East Af J Sci Technol Innovat. doi: 10.1007/s11250-007-9105-2, 5. 68. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease affecting goats, sheep and wild ruminants. (2018). Economic losses associated with Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana County Kenya. … Figure 1. A comparative study of the sero-prevalence of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus among districts of different agro-ecological zones in Tanzania. Peste des petits ruminants in goats in India. (2019) 147:e242. 2010 Jul;38(4):479-85. doi: 10.1016/j.biologicals.2010.02.003. (2019) 6:302. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00302. It is closely related to other members of the genus, including rinderpest virus, measles virus, and canine distemper virus (8, 10). doi: 10.1007/s11250-014-0747-6, 26. eCollection 2019. Copyright © 2020 Idoga, Armson, Alafiatayo, Ogwuche, Mijten, Ekiri, Varga and Cook. OIE. Pan African strategy for the progressive control of peste des petits ruminants (Pan African PPR Strategy). doi: 10.3402/iee.v6.32701, 27. Viruses. Pegram RG, Tereke F. Observation on the health of Afar livestock. Transbound Emerg Dis. doi: 10.19045/bspab.2019.80063, 86. Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, John NM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, et al. Second, the high potential for cross-species transmission of PPRV from small ruminants to cattle in areas where these species live in close proximity suggests that monitoring … Midrand: CAADP (2009). (2014) 2014:202618. doi: 10.1155/2014/202618, 69. PPR control in a Sahelian Setting: what vaccination strategy for Mauritania. AE, RA, EI, and BA: methodology. 81. 17. 61. (2004) 5:257–62. (1942) 5:16–21. Njeumi F, Bailey D, Soula J, Diop B, Tekola BG. Biologicals. Since then several vaccination campaigns have been executed, including in northern Tanzania in 2010 (23), in small ruminants along livestock marketing routes in 2011, and in herds in the area around Mikumi National Park in 2013 (61). doi: 10.4314/bahpa.v58i3.64206, 8. Amarasinghe GK, Ayllón MA, Bào Y, Basler CF, Bavari S, Blasdell KR, et al. Poor access to veterinary services was identified as a risk factor for PPR in Tanzania (14), and is the bane of livestock production in most of Africa (79). Sci., 25 November 2020 Following the serological evidence of PPRV infection in Kenya and Uganda in 1994, the first nationwide serological screening was performed in Tanzania in 2000. Ethiop Veterinary J. Veterinary Res. Comparison of Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of PPR Live Attenuated Vaccines (Nigeria 75/1 and Sungri 96) Administered by Intranasal and Subcutaneous Routes. Mdetele et al. (2020) 12:313. doi: 10.3390/v12030313, 74. doi: 10.3201/eid2112.150223, 53. Herzog CM, de Glanville WA, Willett BJ, Cattadori IM, Kapur V, Hudson PJ, et al. Singh RP, Bandyopadhyay SK. Serological tests performed in the reviewed studies were mostly ELISA techniques such as the competitive PPRV specific anti-H monoclonal based ELISA (c-ELISA) as recommended by the OIE (27, 28, 39, 43, 48–50). Economic implications of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease in sheep and goats: a sample analysis of district Pune, Maharastra. Niyokwishimira A, de D, Baziki J, Dundon WG, Nwankpa N, Njoroge C, Boussini H, et al. Eight of the selected studies discussed events that surround the history of PPR outbreaks in Tanzania. Recently, a homologous PPR vaccine has been developed and the vaccine seed is available through the Pan African Veterinary Vaccine Centre (PANVAC) at Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, for Africa, or CIRAD-EMVT at Montpellier, France, for other areas. Sghaier S, Cosseddu GM, Hassen SB, Hammami S, Ammar HH, Petrini A, et al. 45. (2009) 22:319–22. Jones et al. Paris: OIE (2018). Kgotlele et al. Roos N. Seroepidemiology of Peste des petits Ruminants in central Tanzania Alongside an Evaluation of Filter Paper as Transport Medium. The estimated total national loss of income to PPR (92 Million Euros per year) is a huge burden to the Tanzanian economy and underscores the need to eliminate the disease in the country (26). Limited evidence of PPRV infection has been observed in wild small ruminants (such as dik-dik, gazelle etc.) Goat and sheep are the species of choice for pastoralists, due to their hardiness and ability to withstand the harsh arid and semi-arid climates. Additionally, some of the studies also utilized confirmatory molecular methods for the detection of PPRV genome (27, 36, 41–43). p. 1–16. 2. 59. Liu F, Wu X, Liu W, Li L, Wang Z. Agriculture is a mainstay of Tanzania's economy, with approximately one fifth of the agriculture-derived economy emanating from the livestock subsector (29, 30). Swai ES, Moshy W, Mbise E, Kaaya J, Bwanga S. (2011). Gargadennec L, Lalanne A. Veterinary Microbiol. AC and GV: funding acquisition. doi: 10.1186/s13570-014-0022-5. Vaccine is available in veterinary hospitals. Additionally, Mdetele et al. (23) reported that farmers in Tanzania used antibiotics to treat clinical cases of PPR in their flock. 67. Virus Dis. Diallo A, Minet C, Le Goff C, Berhe G, Albina E, Libeau G, Barrett T. Vaccine. Compar Clin Pathol. Indeed, the authors suggested that the high sero-prevalence observed may have been due to previous PPR vaccination in these regions. These agree with those identified in studies from other PPR endemic countries for example in Ethiopia (81, 82), Kenya (83), India (84), and globally (33). Reported morbidity and mortality rates have varied between 90–100% and 50–100%, respectively (2). These activities include communal grazing and housing, the mixing of infected animals with healthy animals in livestock markets, and the introduction of recently purchased or rustled animals to a herd. 38:307–22. The disease is currently circulating in Asian and African countries, creating problems in small ruminant farming. Anim Health Res Rev. J Biosci Med. J General Virol. Clinical and pathological investigations performed in the Ngorongoro district in March 2008 yielded inconclusive results from 112 sheep and goats, whilst serological investigation was negative for PPR (36). Two articles outlined the challenges hindering the control of PPR in Tanzania. In: The 3rd RUFORUM Biennial Conference. (60), may have been enough to successfully prevent PPR transmission. Additionally, Misinzo et al. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. (2001) 33:423–30. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12911, 94. Maintenance of cold chain for vaccine efficacy has proven difficult in subtropical countries. 38. Detection and molecular characterization of Peste des Petits Ruminants virus from outbreaks in Burundi, December 2017–January 2018. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. ElArbi AS, Metras R, Hammami P, Ciss M, Beye A, Diallo A, et al. Thirty-three articles were identified after literature searches using Google Scholar and PubMed. J Gener Virol. Vet World. Editorial . doi: 10.1007/s11250-019-01981-4, 56. Evidence of interspecies transmission of PPR has been observed in several studies (1, 71). 21. Nkangaga JJ. (2019) 11:12–20. There is need for collaborative efforts to develop interventions to control and eradicate the disease. (2015) 5:9. doi: 10.1186/s13570-015-0029-6, 84. Thombare NN, Sinha MK. Dundon WG, Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, John NM, Oyugi JO, et al. Moumin G, Moussa C, Teshale S, Gezahegne M. Seroprevalence and risk factors for peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats in Djibouti. Onderstepoort J. Vet Res. PPR is caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), species Small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV), a member of the genus Morbillivirus, in the family Paramyxoviridae (8, 9). The funder (Zoetis) had the following involvement with the study: three co-authors (AO, GV, and EM) were Zoetis employees and were involved in study design and the writing of this article. Thirty-three articles were eligible for this review, 24 were research articles, and one was a review article (Supplementary Material 1). This is important for proper planning, execution, and evaluation of control programs (86, 91, 92). In: The 3rd RUFORUM Biennial Conference, 24th – 28th September 2012. After the successful global eradication of Rinderpest in 2011, eradication of PPR seems appealing as both the viruses share similarities in terms of protective immune responses. The practice of grazing sheep and goats in close proximity to or on wildlife grazing areas was also shown to increase the risk of PPR occurrence in wild ruminants (24, 52). Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious, economically important viral disease of sheep and goats with high morbidity and mortality rates. doi: 10.1586/erv.10.74, 93. (2011) 30:879. doi: 10.20506/rst.30.3.2079, 77. Small Ruminant Res. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. (2018) 50:459–67. Gustafson CR, VanWormer E, Kazwala R, Makweta A, Paul G, Smith W, et al. (2019) 239:108493. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108493, 65. Most of them are approved for use in sheep but not goats. 28. Reviewed studies have shown that the incursion of PPR into Tanzania in 2008 may be directly linked with the emergence and spread of PPR in neighboring Kenya in 2006 (53). Only articles concerning case reports, reviews, outbreaks, risk factors, economic losses, control measures, and prevalence of PPR in Tanzania were considered relevant. Additionally, interference of maternal immunity in young animals, poor vaccine quality, and deficiency in the maintenance of cold chain may also cause vaccination failure (82). Exp Rev Vac. 30. Transbound Emerg Dis. (36) reported that poor zoo-sanitary habits by farmers and a lack of proper local and national control strategies are the main factors responsible for the persistence of PPRV in Tanzania. Portions of intestines, lungs, and lymph nodes were also collected and homogenized for the detection of viral RNA (41, 42). 37. The product consists of one ampule of … In Tanzania, PPR was officially confirmed in 2008 (23, 24). (41) carried out phylogenetic analysis based on the N gene of PPRV, on nasal and ocular swabs and whole blood samples obtained from PPR cases in northern and eastern Tanzania. Since then, outbreaks of PPR have been reported in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region of southern Tanzania in 2011 (43), in Ngorongoro and Mvomero districts in northern and eastern Tanzania (respectively) in 2012 (41), and in the Loliondo area in Ngorongoro district of Northern Tanzania in 2016 (27). USA.gov. Wilson RT. Although existing PPR vaccines provide life-long immunity, they require continuous refrigeration. Swai ES, Kapaga A, Kivaria F, Tinuga D, Joshua G, Sanka P. Prevalence and distribution of Peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies in various districts of Tanzania. Veterinary Med Int. 52. Matthew M, Mruttu H, Gebru G. Animal Health Strategy and Vision for Tanzania. Seropositivity without clinical manifestation has been observed in cattle, camels, buffalo, Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti), wildebeest, and impala sampled in Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania (24, 25, 52). In addition to uncontrolled livestock movement, Kivaria et al. Mariner JC, Jones BA, Rich KM, Thevasagayam S, Anderson J, Jeggo M, et al. Serological evidence of camel exposure to Peste des Petits Ruminants virus in Tanzania. 2020 Apr 6;8(2):168. doi: 10.3390/vaccines8020168. (50) reported that female sheep and goats may be at higher risk of PPR than males because they are kept longer on the farms and therefore have a longer risk period for PPRV exposure. (2014) 81:2–4. Infect Ecol Epidemiol. Detection of peste des petits ruminants and concurrent secondary diseases in sheep and goats in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania. Tanzania Livestock Master Plan Developed by the Tanzania Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries (MLF) and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Livestock Master Plan Team. Received: 07 August 2020; Accepted: 29 October 2020; Published: 25 November 2020. doi: 10.1007/BF02239901. Epidemiological analysis of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) outbreaks in Pakistan. Only 4/33 of the eligible studies characterized the strains of PPRV present in Tanzania. Willingness to Vaccinate (WTV) and Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Vaccination Against Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Mali. Comparative efficacy of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccines. J Veterinary Sci Technol. Once introduced, the virus can infect up to 90 percent of an animal heard, and the disease kills anywhere from 30 to 70 percent of infected animals. Transbound Emerg Dis. PPR has since been reported in goats, sheep, and camels in Tanzania (25–28). Little PD. Munir M. Role of wild small ruminants in the epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants. Although transmission of the live attenuated PPR vaccine strain in the field cannot be completely ruled out, there is currently no evidence for vaccine strain transmission either in the field or through experimental infection studies . (2016) 7:1–5. The OIE recommends pre-vention and control measures including vaccination of high-risk populations along with strict controls on the movement of sheep and goats. A thermostable live-attenuated conventional or recombinant vaccine is a way to avoid cold chain-associated problems in tropical and subtropical countries. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Available online at: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/92405/livestockMasterPlan.Tanzania.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed December, 2019). Despite this, PPR was observed a few months later in southern Tanzania in 2009 and proceeded to spread across the country, including to northern Tanzania (14, 36, 42, 43). An attenuated PPR vaccine prepared in Vero cell culture is available and affords protection from natural disease for >1 yr. Encouraged by the successful global eradication of rinderpest, international organizations such as OIE, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are making plans (2015) for global eradication of PPR. However, Swai et al. 13. doi: 10.3201/eid1912.130973, 25. The authors attributed the difference in sero-prevalence to vaccination that was performed in the Morogoro and Mtwara regions prior to sample collection in 2014, and therefore it is likely that the high seropositivity was influenced by vaccine-induced antibodies, compared with a population containing more naïve susceptible animals (3–12 months of age) during the 2015 sample collection. Herd immunity levels required for successful prevention of PPR transmission is in the range of 70–90% (60), and previous vaccination campaigns in Tanzania may have fallen short of this estimate. doi: 10.20506/bull.2018.2.2871, Keywords: peste des petit ruminants, PPRV, small ruminant morbillivirus, sheep, goats, small ruminant, Citation: Idoga ES, Armson B, Alafiatayo R, Ogwuche A, Mijten E, Ekiri AB, Varga G and Cook AJC (2020) A Review of the Current Status of Peste des Petits Ruminants Epidemiology in Small Ruminants in Tanzania. (2018) 37:961–9. The disease is currently circulating in Asian and African countries, creating problems in small ruminant farming. Banyard AC, Parida S, Batten C, Oura C, Kwiatek O, Libeau G. Global distribution of peste des petits ruminants virus and prospects for improved diagnosis and control. Diagnosis of PPR in Tanzania is mostly by observation of clinical signs and lesions at post mortem. Emerg Infect Dis. (2015) 5:401–5. Morogoro: Sokoine University of Agriculture (2015). A goat poxvirus-vectored peste-des-petits-ruminants vaccine induces long-lasting neutralization antibody to high levels in goats and sheep.
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